HOW A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM WORKS
How Electricity Is Produced Only With Sun Energy
Photovoltaic energy is a technology that allows us to produce clean energy using sunlight. It is a renewable source that allows to reduce polluting emissions into the atmosphere. And as a source of clean energy, it will be the future (and perhaps already present) of a new energy model that will bring down the fossil sources that are running low.
Photovoltaic panels, made up of several photovoltaic cells, convert the energy of photons into electricity. The process that creates this "energy" is called photovoltaic effect, bone the mechanism that, from sunlight, induces the "stimulation" of the electrons present in the silicon of which each solar cell is composed. Simplifying to the maximum: when a photon hits the surface of the photovoltaic cell, its energy is transferred to the electrons present in the silicon cell. These electrons are "excited" and begin to flow into the circuit producing electric current. A solar panel produces DC power. Then it will be the task of the inverter to convert it into alternating current (AC) to transport and use it in our distribution networks, to domestic and industrial buildings.
Factors that influence the efficiency of photovoltaic energy.
The conversion efficiency of each photovoltaic system is not 100%. That is: the panels, the solar cells, which are hit by the sun's rays, can only convert one part: this is the conversion efficiency. Panasolar Generation S.A. modules have a conversion efficiency of around 20-22%. This means that one-fifth of the solar energy that hits the panels is converted into electricity. In addition to this "physiological" factor, many others determine the effective performance of each system. Both are "losses" due to environmental factors and inefficiencies due to various electrical losses (cables, appliances, transportation, ...). In general, the factors that determine the efficiency of a photovoltaic system are:
TEMPERATURE: The efficiency of photovoltaic modules varies depending on the operating temperature: the higher the operating temperature, the less efficient the panels are. Cell overheating has a negative impact on module efficiency and system-wide performance. This is why Panasolar Generation S.A. is located in an area of Panama where there is good ventilation that refreshes the air.
SUCIEDITY: Materials that can accumulate on the surface of panels (earth, sand, pollution, bird droppings, leaves, resins, etc.) have a negative impact on the total reception of sunlight and hinder system performance Photovoltaic. In the long run, they could also compromise the economic return envisaged by the investment plan. Performance losses due to this type of "inefficiency" can be highly variable and depend heavily on environmental conditions and the frequency of cleaning of the panels. Cleaning is not, in this case, only an "aesthetic" element, but a "functional" element, and is routine in our plant.
INVESTOR EFFICIENCY: The process of converting DC to alternating current by means of an inverter has an efficiency of around 96-97%. Inverters typically have optimal conversion efficiency when the "input" DC current power is high, but always below the declared rated power. The investors of the Panasolar Generation S.A. plant are Top Quality Italians
ANTIGEN: Photovoltaic cells, which last from 20 to 25 years, do not produce evenly throughout their lifespan: they have a drop in performance estimated at 0.5% per year. At the end of its useful life, a photovoltaic system can have a performance of about 10-12 percent lower than at the beginning. This depends on a "physiological" degradation of materials and components and should be considered from the outset in the system depreciation plan. Panasolar Generation S.A. is a new company the panels were installed in 2019.